University Research

BioGreen has partnered with several universities for researching various physiochemical characteristics of BioGreen’s natural zeolite deposits specifically for manure management and agricultural applications. BioGreen’s on-going collaborations include Colorado State University’s Agricultural Research Development and Education Center (ARDEC), The Ohio State University’s Bioproducts Innovation Center, and the University of Illinois’s Department of Agricultural Engineering.

Representative Bibliography

The literature references below are only a sampling of the extensive published scientific support for the application of zeolites for promoting sustainable farming systems and minimizing serious and costly environmental consequences associated with current large-scale manure management practices.

Animal Feed Supplement

Anonymous, 2000. C2C zeolites delivering the bacon: Animal feed applications take off. North American Minerals News, December 2000, 67: 1-2.

Barington, S. D. Choiniere and B. Downey. 1999. Zeolite as mineral supplement to improve swine productivity and piggery air quality. Can. Agr. Eng., 41: 98-107.

Elliiot, M.A. and H.M. Edwards. 1991. Comparison of the effects of synthetic and natural zeolite on laying hen and broiler chicken performance. Poultry Science, 70: 2115-2130.

Eng, K.S., R. Bechtel, and D. Hutchenson. 2003. Form of zeolite may reduce feedlot nitrogen losses. February 17, 2003, p. 12-13.

Gaol, Y., M. Z. Fan, E. J. Squires, T. Smith, G. Duns, D. Lackeam, T. Archbold, C.F.M. de Lange, and T. Rideout. 2001. Dietary supplementation of diatomaceous earth and zeolite to reduce the emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from swine slurry.

Hutcheson, D.P. 1983. Addition of clinoptilolite to the diets of feeder cattle. In: Pond, W.G. and F.A. Mumpton (eds.), Zeo-Agriculture: Use of Natural Zeolite in Agriculture and Aquaculture, pp. 189-193.

Pond, W.G. and J-T Yen. 1985. Physiological effects of clinoptilolite and synthetic zeolite A in animals. In: International Committee on Natural Zeolites, pp.127-42.

Uygongco, G., M. Honeyman, D. Zimmerman, and D. Bundy. Effects of Reduced Nitrogen Content and Clinoptilolite Supplementation of Diets on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Excretion, and Odor Production. Iowa State University, ASL-1663, 3 pp.

Zimmerman, D. Effects of Clinoptilolite on Growth Performance and Carcass Composition of Growing-Finishing Pigs and on Fecal Nitrogen and Phosphorus Content. Iowa State University, ASL-R170, 4 pp.

Ammonia Removal in Wastewater

Demir, A., A. Gunay and E. Debik. 2002. Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by ion-exchange using packed bed natural zeolite. Water SA, 28(3): 329-335.

Baykal, B.B. and D.A. Guven. 1997. Performance of clinoptilolite alone and in combination with sand filters or the removal of ammonia peaks from domestic wastewater. Water Sci. Tech., 35(7): 47-54.

Ciambelli, P., P. Corbo, C. Porcelli, and A. Rimoli, 1985. Ammonia removal from wastewater by natural zeolites. I. Ammonium ion exchange properties of an Italian phillipsite tuff. Zeolites, 5(3):184-187.

Kithome, M., J.W. Paul, L.M. Lavkulich, and A.A. Bomke. 1998. Kinetics of ammonium adsorption and desorption by the natural zeolite clinoptilolite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 62: 622-629.

Nguyen, M.L., C.C. Tanner. 1998. Ammonium removal from wastewaters using natural New Zealand zeolites. New Zealand J. of Agricultural Research, 41: 427-446.

Princz, P., J. Olah, S. Smith, D. Kallo, and K. Hatfield. 2002. Improvement of the biological degradability of wastewaters using modified zeolites. In: Zeolite ’02, 6th Int. Conf. Occurance, Properties and Utilization of Natural Zeolites. Thessaloniki, Greece, June 3-7, 2002, pp. 301-2.


CAFO Manure Management

Krason, J. and C. F. Knud-Hansen, 2004. Natural zeolites –remedy for concentrated animal feeding operations and sustainable agriculture. In: M.P. Bernal, R. Moral, R. Clemente, and C. Paredes (eds), Sustainable Organic Waste Management for Environmental Protection and Food Safety, Murcia, Spain, Ramiran 2004, pp. 265-268.

Lefcourt, A.M. and J.J. Meisinger, 2001. Effect of adding alum or zeolite to diary slurry on ammonia volatilization and chemical composition. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1814-1821.

Minnesota Environmental Quality Board (MEQB), 1999. Generic environmental impact statement on animal agriculture; H-175 p.


Barbarick, K.A. and H.J. Pirela. 1984. Agronomic and horticultural uses of zeolites: a review. In: W.G. Pond and F.A. Mumpton (eds): Zeo-Agriculture: Use of Natural Zeolites in Agriculture and Aquaculture, International Committee on Natural Zeolites, pp. 93-103.

Dwairi, I.M. 1998. Evaluation of Jordanian zeolite tuff as a controlled slow-release fertilizer for NH4+. Environmental Geology, 34(1):1-4.

Lewis, M.D., F.D. Moore, and K.L. Goldsberry, 1985. Ammonium-exchanged clinoptilolite and granulated clinoptilolite with urea as nitrogen fertilizers. In: W.G. Pond and F.A. Mumpton (eds), Zeo-Agriculture: Use of Natural Zeolites in Agriculture and Aquaculture; International Committee on Natural Zeolites, pp. 105-111.

Mumpton, F.A. 1985. Using zeolites in agriculture; In: Innovative Biological Technologies for Lesser Developed Countries. Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment, Chapter VIII, pp. 127-158; Washington DC 246 p.

Mumpton, F.A. 1999. La roca magica: uses of natural zeolites in agriculture and industry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96:3463-3470.

Perrin, T.S., J.L. Boettinger, D.T. Drost, and J.M. Norton, 1998. Decreasing nitrogen leaching from sandy soil with ammonium-loaded clinoptilolite. J. Environmental Qual., 27:656-663.