The literature references below are only a sampling of the extensive published scientific support for the application of zeolites for promoting sustainable farming systems and minimizing serious and costly environmental consequences associated with current large-scale manure management practices.
Animal Feed Supplement
Anonymous, 2000. C2C zeolites delivering the bacon: Animal feed applications take off. North American Minerals News, December 2000, 67: 1-2.
Barington, S. D. Choiniere and B. Downey. 1999. Zeolite as mineral supplement to improve swine productivity and piggery air quality. Can. Agr. Eng., 41: 98-107.
Elliiot, M.A. and H.M. Edwards. 1991. Comparison of the effects of synthetic and natural zeolite on laying hen and broiler chicken performance. Poultry Science, 70: 2115-2130.
Eng, K.S., R. Bechtel, and D. Hutchenson. 2003. Form of zeolite may reduce feedlot nitrogen losses. February 17, 2003, p. 12-13.
Gaol, Y., M. Z. Fan, E. J. Squires, T. Smith, G. Duns, D. Lackeam, T. Archbold, C.F.M. de Lange, and T. Rideout. 2001. Dietary supplementation of diatomaceous earth and zeolite to reduce the emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from swine slurry. http:www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA.
Hutcheson, D.P. 1983. Addition of clinoptilolite to the diets of feeder cattle. In: Pond, W.G. and F.A. Mumpton (eds.), Zeo-Agriculture: Use of Natural Zeolite in Agriculture and Aquaculture, pp. 189-193.
Pond, W.G. and J-T Yen. 1985. Physiological effects of clinoptilolite and synthetic zeolite A in animals. In: International Committee on Natural Zeolites, pp.127-42.
Uygongco, G., M. Honeyman, D. Zimmerman, and D. Bundy. Effects of Reduced Nitrogen Content and Clinoptilolite Supplementation of Diets on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Excretion, and Odor Production. Iowa State University, ASL-1663, 3 pp.
Zimmerman, D. Effects of Clinoptilolite on Growth Performance and Carcass Composition of Growing-Finishing Pigs and on Fecal Nitrogen and Phosphorus Content. Iowa State University, ASL-R170, 4 pp.
Ammonia Removal in Wastewater
Demir, A., A. Gunay and E. Debik. 2002. Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by ion-exchange using packed bed natural zeolite. Water SA, 28(3): 329-335.
Baykal, B.B. and D.A. Guven. 1997. Performance of clinoptilolite alone and in combination with sand filters or the removal of ammonia peaks from domestic wastewater. Water Sci. Tech., 35(7): 47-54.
Ciambelli, P., P. Corbo, C. Porcelli, and A. Rimoli, 1985. Ammonia removal from wastewater by natural zeolites. I. Ammonium ion exchange properties of an Italian phillipsite tuff. Zeolites, 5(3):184-187.
Kallo, D. 2001. Applications of natural zeolites in water and wastewater treatment. In: Natural Zeolites: Occurrence, Properties, Applications. Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, Vol. 45. Pp. 519-550.
Kithome, M., J.W. Paul, L.M. Lavkulich, and A.A. Bomke. 1998. Kinetics of ammonium adsorption and desorption by the natural zeolite clinoptilolite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 62: 622-629.
Nguyen, M.L., C.C. Tanner. 1998. Ammonium removal from wastewaters using natural New Zealand zeolites. New Zealand J. of Agricultural Research, 41: 427-446.
Princz, P., J. Olah, S. Smith, D. Kallo, and K. Hatfield. 2002. Improvement of the biological degradability of wastewaters using modified zeolites. In: Zeolite ’02, 6th Int. Conf. Occurrence, Properties and Utilization of Natural Zeolites. Thessaloniki, Greece, June 3-7, 2002, pp. 301-2.
CAFO Manure Management
Krason, J. and C. F. Knud-Hansen, 2004. Natural zeolites –remedy for concentrated animal feeding operations and sustainable agriculture. In: M.P. Bernal, R. Moral, R. Clemente, and C. Paredes (eds), Sustainable Organic Waste Management for Environmental Protection and Food Safety, Murcia, Spain, Ramiran 2004, pp. 265-268.
Lefcourt, A.M. and J.J. Meisinger, 2001. Effect of adding alum or zeolite to diary slurry on ammonia volatilization and chemical composition. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1814-1821.
Minnesota Environmental Quality Board (MEQB), 1999. Generic environmental impact statement on animal agriculture; H-175 p.
Barbarick, K.A. and H.J. Pirela. 1984. Agronomic and horticultural uses of zeolites: a review. In: W.G. Pond and F.A. Mumpton (eds): Zeo-Agriculture: Use of Natural Zeolites in Agriculture and Aquaculture, International Committee on Natural Zeolites, pp. 93-103.
Dwairi, I.M. 1998. Evaluation of Jordanian zeolite tuff as a controlled slow-release fertilizer for NH4+. Environmental Geology, 34(1):1-4.
Lewis, M.D., F.D. Moore, and K.L. Goldsberry, 1985. Ammonium-exchanged clinoptilolite and granulated clinoptilolite with urea as nitrogen fertilizers. In: W.G. Pond and F.A. Mumpton (eds), Zeo-Agriculture: Use of Natural Zeolites in Agriculture and Aquaculture; International Committee on Natural Zeolites, pp. 105-111.
Ming, D.W. and E.R. Allen. 2001. Use of natural zeolites in agronomy, horticulture, and environmental soil remediation. In: Natural Zeolites: Occurrence, Properties, Applications. Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, Vol. 45. Pp. 619-654.
Mumpton, F.A. 1985. Using zeolites in agriculture; In: Innovative Biological Technologies for Lesser Developed Countries. Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment, Chapter VIII, pp. 127-158; Washington DC 246 p.
Mumpton, F.A. 1999. La roca magica: uses of natural zeolites in agriculture and industry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96:3463-3470.
Perrin, T.S., J.L. Boettinger, D.T. Drost, and J.M. Norton, 1998. Decreasing nitrogen leaching from sandy soil with ammonium-loaded clinoptilolite. J. Environmental Qual., 27:656-663.
Pond, W. G. and F.A. Mumpton (eds.). 1984. Zeo-Agriculture: Use of Natural Zeolites in Agriculture and Aquaculture. International Committee on Natural Zeolites. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. 296 pp.